Rev. High Pressure Sci. Technol.

Vol.5  No.2(1996) Abstract

Rev. High Pressure Sci. Technol. 5-2,71-77(1996)
Solubilities of High-Boiling Components in Supercritical Fluid
岩井 芳夫1  内田 博久2
Yoshio IWAI Hirohisa UCHIDA
Solubilities of high-boiling components in supercritical fluid are reviewed from the point of view of process design. The authors described the solid-gas equilibria for binary systems, entrainer effects, supercritical fluid + two solid components for ternary systems. Furthermore, a prediction method by using an equation of state and molecular simulation was shown to calculate the solubilities of high-boiling components and the entrainer effects. Finally, the distinction for pressure dependence of the solubilities of high-boiling compounds between solid-gas and liquid-gas equilibria was discussed.
[Supercritical Fluid, High-Boiling Component, Solubility, Solid-Gas Equilibria, Liquid-Gas Equilibria, Entrainer Effect, Retrograde Crystallization, Correlation, Equation of State, Molecular Simulation]
1 〒812-8581 福岡市東区箱崎6-10-1 九州大学大学院 工学研究院 化学研究部門
Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Kyushu University, 6-10-1 Hakozaki, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8581, Japan
2 〒184-8588 小金井市中町 2-24-16 東京農工大学 工学部 化学システム工学科

Rev. High Pressure Sci. Technol. 5-2,78-83(1996)
Supercritical Fluid Chromatographic Separation
山本 修一
The relationships between the plate height HETP and the linear mobile phase velocity μ in supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) were investigated over a wide range of experimental conditions (pressure p=8.5〜15MPa, temperature T=35〜45℃) with carbon dioxide as the mobile phase. When the HETP-μ curves were converted into the dimensionless variables h=HETP/dp andν=udp/Dm, the curves were similar regardless of the pressure, the temperature and the state of the mobile phase. The distribution coefficient K decreased with increasing T and /or p. The K values were correlated to the mobile phase density. A linear increase of the pressure was applied to elute the sample from the column. The result was simulated by a chromatography model with the isobar chromatography data. These results have shown that the separation behavior of SFC at low sample loadings can be predicted by ordinary liquid chromatography models. Further research should be done for the prediction of the separation behavior at overloaded conditions.
[supercritical fluid, chromatography, diffusion coefficient, axial dispersion, HETP, distribution coefficient]
〒755 山口県宇部市常盤台2557 山口大学工学部応用化学工学科
Department of Chemical Engineering, Yamaguchi University, Tokiwadai, Ube 755

Rev. High Pressure Sci. Technol. 5-2,84-89(1996)
Practical Application of Supercritical Fluid
武藤 恒久
Tsunehisa MUTOH
Practical use of supercritical fluid such as Co2 as an extraction medium ha been known; e.q.,Co2 is applied to the extraction process of food additives on the industrial scale. Furthermore, many other advantages have been studied recently in a wide area. In this paper, the novel process of direct hydration reaction of n-butene under supercritical condition is reviewed.

[supercritical fluid, extraction, phase equilibrium, physical properties, hydration]
〒106 東京都港区芝6-5-1 出光石油化学(株) 技術部
Idemitsu Petrochemical Co., Ltd, Shiba 6-5-1, Minato-ku, Tokyo 106

Rev. High Pressure Sci. Technol. 5-2,90-95(1996)
Organic Syntheses in Supercritical Carbon Dioxide
相田 哲夫
Tetsuo AIDA
The possibilities of the practical application of the supercritical carbon dioxide for the organic syntheses have been discussed based upon the recent experimental results obtained at author's laboratory, focusing on the "unusual phenomena", i.e., the acceleration of reaction rates, the shift of equiliblium constants, or the selectivity of reaction products which were used to be induced near the critical points(Tc & Pc).

[Supercritical carbon dioxide, ester-condensation, catalytic oxidation, photo-isomerization]
〒820-0011 福岡県飯塚市柏の森 11-6 近畿大学九州工学部 工業化学科
Faculty of Engineering, Department of Industrial Chemistry, Kinki University at Kyushu, 11-6 Kashiwanomori, Iizuka, Fukuoka 820-0011

Rev. High Pressure Sci. Technol. 5-2,96-97(1996)
Stiffness of Water
相原 康彦
Yasuhiko AIHARA
The generation of high pressure in water associated with the tangential impact of a solid body is reviewed, and the possible application of the transient or unsteady behaviors of fluid motion including the water jet technology is suggested.

[High water pressure, Transient response]
〒259-12 神奈川県平塚市北金目 1117 東海大学工学部航空宇宙学科
Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Faculty of Engineering, Tokai University, Hiratsuka, Kanagawa 259-12

Rev. High Pressure Sci. Technol. 5-2,98-102(1996)
Characteristics of Water Jets
柳井田 勝哉
The characteristics of a water jet emerging from the nozzle into an infinite space filled with air is described in this paper. The water jet is characterized by the maximum velocity and pressure decay in the jet axis, velocity and pressure distribution, jet spreading width and core length. Especially, the core length of jet can be estimated as a basic factor for the characteristics of a water jet.

[jet characteristics, jet spreading width, maximum velocity and pressure, core length]
〒813 福岡市東区松香台 2-1-3 九州産業大学工学部機械工学科
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Kyushu Sangyo University, Matsukadai, Higashiku, Fukuoka 813

Rev. High Pressure Sci. Technol. 5-2,103-109(1996)
Mechanism of Fracture
小林 陵二
The mechanism of fracture of solid materials is considered for the water jet in air, the abrasive jet which is a water jet including abrasives, the underwater cavitating jet and the supersonic air jet. It is emphasized that the users should take note of each fracture mechanism in their applications, because the mechanism is quite different among the jets mentioned above.

[Water Jet, Abrasive Jet, Cavitating Jet, Supersonic Air Jet, Mechanism of Fracture, Jet Cutting]
〒980-77 仙台市青葉区荒巻字青葉 東北大学工学部機械知能工学科
Department of Machine Intelligence and Systems Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-77

Rev. High Pressure Sci. Technol. 5-2,110-115(1996)
Synthesis of High Purity Diamond Single Crystal ?U
角谷 均  戸田 直大  佐藤 周一
Hitoshi SUMIYA Naohiro TODA Shuichi SATOH
High purity synthetic diamond crystals (type ?Ua) grown by the temperature gradient method with impurities less than 0.1ppm were studied on the crystal defects and residual strains in details by polarizing microscopy, double-crystal X-ray rocking curve measurement, X-ray topography and Raman spectroscopy. The results indicated that the synthetic type ?Ua diamonds had less crystal defects and lower residual strain than natural diamonds or synthetic type ?Tb diamonds did. Furthermore it was found that some of dislocations in the synthetic type ?Ua diamond could be removed and the crystal quality of the diamonds could beimproved by using strain-free and low defect crystals for the seeds.

[synthetic high purity diamond crystal, type?Ua diamond, high pressure and high temperature, crystallinity, rocking curve, X-ray topography]
〒664-0016 兵庫県伊丹市昆陽北1-1-1 住友電気工業株式会社 伊丹研究所
Itami Researh Laboratories, Sumitomo Electric Industries Ltd., 1-1-1, Koya-kita, Itami, Hyogo, 664-0016

Rev. High Pressure Sci. Technol. 5-2,116-121(1996)
A Proposal from High-pressure Research to Seismological Research
岡井 敏
It was shown that strain meters at observation stations in Kobe did not satisfactorily function during periods including the occurrence time of the 1995 Kobe earthquake, while present stress meters are incapable of continuous recording. Here we propose a new stress meter for earthquake surveillance which continuously records the accurate value of stress. The probe for measuring stress is a coil of manganin wire having pressure-sensitive resistivity which is confined within a thin vessel filled with liquid. Such vessels are buried underground in groups of 6 with different orientations to record the 6 components of stress. Extra values of stress caused by burying the vessels can be subtracted from the observed data. Thus the absolute values of underground stress are obtained.

[stress meter, manganin wire, underground stress, earthquake surveillance]
〒163-91 東京都新宿区西新宿1-24-2 工学院大学一般教育部
Faculty of General Education, Kogakuin University, 1-24-2 Nishishinjuku, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 163-91

Rev. High Pressure Sci. Technol. 5-2,122-123(1996)
Difficulty in Measuring the Crustal Stress
島田 充彦
Mitsuhiko SHIMADA
The full knowledge of the state of stress in the earth's crust is indispensable for earthquake prediction research. Today, the crustal stress is measured only intermittently at limited sites by several methods, but not continuously. There are some difficulties in measuring the crustal stress (and not strain) continuously and monitoring its variation with time. The main reason is the fundamental lack of any effective method, because we have to know quantitatively the anisotropic deformation of the measuring device due to anisotropic crustal stress. A comment is presented on a proposed method for continuous stress measurement by a stress meter composed of a disk-shaped pressure vessel filled with liquid.

[crustal stress, continuous measurement, pressure vessel, earthquake prediction]
〒611-0011 宇治市五ヶ庄 京都大学防災研究所 地震予知研究センター
Research Center for Earthquake Prediction, Disaster Prevention Research Institute, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011

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